Part 4

# Electromagnetism

Everyone knows the electromagnetism (EM) force and its behaviour but no one can clearly explain its mechanism. This page tries to solve this enigma with the help of sCells (see the introduction).

Note: Here we use the electron as example of particle, but the following explanations can be extended to any other charged particle.

This webpage is the second part of the website.
It is strongly suggested to also read the first page "Introduction".

## sCells Propagation

The "Mass Effect" (from the closed volume - see Part 1 -) of electron is measured with remarkable accuracy: 510.998918 KeV. Therefore, its borders are very precise and clearly defined. Indeed, the electron and positron are not those particles that were described in Part 2 "Constitution of Matter" as the figure (A) shows. They are, rather, particles illustrated in figure (B).

Part 3 "Quarks and Antimatter" explains the possibility that electrons and positrons could be charged sCells whose borders make a "closed volume" of 510.998918 KeV. Since these borders are very clean, how can the EM field exceed the electron's borders?

Explanation is very simple.

On one hand, Part 2 explains that electric charge is nothing but varaitions of density of spacetime.

On the other hand, sCells, defined in Part 3, have a homogenous spacetime density, i.e. "electric charge". So, the charge of each sCell is neutral. Under external influence, like near a charge, this homogeneity is disturbed.

The electric field creates an excess of density of spacetime on one side of the sCell, and a default on its opposite side. The negative and positive areas of spacetime are attracted one toward the other over the boundary of sCells. Thus, the electric field is gradually propagated, step-by-step, by adjacent sCells. Each sCell acts like an electric dipole. The following figure shows the mechanism of propagation of charge on 6 sCells.

The representation of this figure is only for teaching purposes.
The sCells and electrons have the same closed volume of 511 KeV.

## Electromagnetism:The 1/d2 Rule

Let's imagine that the layer L1 has 1000 sCells.

The layer L2 will have:

N = 1000 x 4pR2/4pr2 = 1000 x R2/r2

This simple reasoning shows that the number of sCells is proportional to the surface of the layer. More the layer is far, more the number of sCells is important. This quantity varies as d2, d being the distance of the layer from the center.

So, we get back the Coulomb's Formulae:

The electric charge at a distance "d"
from the center is inversely proportional
to this distance and varies as 1/d2.

## 1D polarization of sCells

Let's use polar co-ordinates. The electric polarization described in the preceding paragraphs is a function of the radius, r, which has only one dimension (1D). At a distance r from the center, sCells are electrically polarized in an identical manner, regardless of the j and q angles. This situation is normal since we are in a spherical symmetry.

The following figure on the left represents a 3D view of a static electron and six sCells. As demonstrated, the density of spacetime into each sCell decreases in 1/r2 with the distance "r". The right part of the figure shows a cross-section of the left view. If the electron does not move, it produces only an electric field, which is this 1D polarization.

The electric field is a 1D
polarization of sCells, which is
only a function of the "r" radius

This explanation is in accordance with our knowledge of the electric field. Indeed, as we know,

When the electron is static,
the magnetic field does not exist

## 3D polarization of sCells

We know that:

• Electromagnetism appears only if the charged particle is moving,
• James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated in 1872 that the electric field and the magnetic field are two different effects of the same phenomenon.

These two remarks lead to the following deduction.

The radial co-ordinate is already used by the electric field. We can, therefore, deduce that the magnetic field, which appears only if the electron is moving, uses the remaining co-ordinates, i.e. angles q or/and j. This point of view is exactly what the experimentation proves. Indeed, to describe magnetism, we need vectors perpendicular to each other, whereas only one vector is necessary to define the electric field. In schools, this principle is known as the "three fingers rule".

## Explanation of Magnetism

Why does this polarization appear only in the particular situation when the electron is moving?

We have the following alternative:

• Motionless electron
A motionless electron is simply a charged sCell. As explained, the electric field is propagated from sCells to sCells, and each sCell is polarized in only one direction, the "r" radius. In such a case, the magnetic field does not exist.
• Moving electron
The third principle of wave-particle duality (see the Introduction page or Part 2) says: "When the particle is moving, it becomes a wave". Each sCell is therefore subject to several polarizations produced by different parts of the wave. For example, the point "x" below receives three different fields, each having different intensities. The result is that all sCells are polarized in 3D (r, j and q) instead of 1D (r only) for static electrons. A lateral polarization (j and q) is added the radial polarization (r).

Figure A: The square shows the 1D polarization of the electric field.
Figure B: The square shows a lateral 2D polarization due to the magnetic field.
In figure B, for teaching purposes, the electric field has not been represented.

## Conclusions

To summarize, magnetism does not exist as a fundamental force. We have only the Coulomb Force, nothing more. The magnetic field is a kind of "lateral" Coulomb Field. The orientation of the polarization of sCells produces a new phenomenon called "magnetism", but in reality, magnetism, as the Coulomb force, is a polarization of sCells. To summarize:

• In an electric field, sCells are polarized in 1D: "r" radius only.
• In a pure magnetic field (magnets...), sCells are polarized in 2D: j and q angles.
• In an electromagnetic field, sCells are polarized in 3D: "r" radius, j and q angles.

We must also note that the particle, when it is motionless, has an electric field (1D), which acts like a monopole since it is a punctual object. On the other hand, the magnetic field (2D/3D) requires dipoles (the wave) to create it. So, the magnetic monopole can't exist. This is also proven by experimentation.