Part 4

# Introduction

This webpage is a summary of Parts 1 to 3 of the Spacetime Model.

Internet users who have already read these parts of the Spacetime Model can bypass this page and move directly to the next webpage Electromagnetism.

## What is Mass?

The mass and gravitation enigmas lie in the concept of VOLUME.

All objects in the universe can be classified in five different types of volumes described in Part 1. The three main classes of volumes are:

• Closed volumes (volumes with mass), such as elementary particles. Their internal spacetime "pushes" the surrounding spacetime to make room. Thus, "closed volumes" produce a convex curvature of spacetime. Since spacetime has properties of elasticity (Einstein), the latter exerts a pressure on the surface of these volumes. As a result, a "mass effect" appears, i.e. an effect having all the characteristics of mass. The mass component [M] can be extracted from the pressure [M/LT2] by simple mathematical operations. This leads to a 4D expression of the mass: m = f(x,y,z,t).
• Open Volumes (massless volumes). It is just a vacuum, but sometimes found in various forms such as the volume of orbitals or the space between atoms. These volumes exist but they are "porous" regarding spacetime. More exactly, they are subject to variations of spacetime but they do not curve spacetime themselves. Therefore, open volumes are massless since no curvature means no mass (Einstein Field Equations).
• Apparent Volumes. These volumes, such as atoms, molecules, and more generally daily life objects, are combinations of closed and open volumes. The proportion varies from one object to another. This is why mass is not identical to (apparent) volumes.

Mechanism of

## Mass and Gravitation

Part 1 of the Spacetime Model demonstrates that mass and gravitation are nothing but the consequence of the pressure of spacetime on closed volumes ("closed volumes", not "apparent volumes"). As figures (a) and (b) show, we are faced with the same phenomenon.

Gravitation is not an attractive force between masses, but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes that tends to bring them closer to each other.

The result is identical to that of an attraction. For example, a pressure on one side of a sheet of paper is equivalent to an attraction on the other side. In both cases, the sheet is curved.

## Wave-Particle Duality

Matter presents the particularity of having a wave and particle behavior. This phenomenon is known as the wave-particle duality. However, wave-particle duality also exists on Earth, as shown by the following figure.

To get a wave-particle duality on Earth, the only criterion required is that the wave, particle and medium must have the same constitution.

## Wave-Particle Duality Laws

Law #1

The Wave-Particle Duality appears only in
this particular situation where:

• the particle,
• the wave,
• the medium

. . . have the same constitution.

Law #2

When the particle is moving,
it becomes a wave

Law #3

Particles can exclusively take one, and
only one, of the three following states:

1. Particle state, when it is motionless,
2. Wave state, when it is moving,
3. Halfway state, between wave and
particle during the transition.

## Speed of light

This section shortly explains why the speed of light is constant, at 299,792,458 m/s.

The problem of velocity additions suggests that we are in the presence of two distinct media:

1. Apparent medium
This is the visible medium that carries out experimentations and from where the EM wave is emitted. For example, in Fizeau's experiment, this medium was water, in Michelson's experiment, it was the Earth's atmosphere moved by the Earth itself...
2. Real medium
EM waves are propagated in a Real Medium. In the 1900s, the real meadium was called "Aether". In the 1930s, De Broglie thought that it was a neutrinos sea.

This leads to think that the Apparent Medium and the Real Medium are overlaid. Part 2 of the Spacetime Model explains that this "real medium" is noting but the global spacetime of the universe.

## Constant Speed of Light

Let's imagine the emission of a beam from a laser diode "A", fixed on a motionless Apparent Medium. Contrary to what we think, the beam emitted from A does not reach the point L directly but via the real medium: A → A' → L' → L.

Now let's consider that the apparent medium is moving with the velocity "V" (figure below). An external observer, such as Fizeau in the 1900s, could think that the total speed will be the sum of the speed of the light, V(A-L), plus that of the apparent medium, V(L-X).

In reality, the speed of light will be constant, whatever the speed of the apparent medium, because the light is not propagated in the apparent medium but in the real medium, i.e. the global spacetime of the universe.

## Case of two Reference Spaces

The figure below shows a photon which is emitted from an apparent medium A to another apparent medium B. The two apparent media are moving in the opposite direction. In this case, no one can explain why the speed of this photon is constant.

This website explains in the next pages that

The light is not emitted
as a photon but as a wave.

In other words, the photon does not exist per se. It is nothing but a mathematical concept.

In reality, the light is not propagated directly from A to B, but through the real medium from A' to B' (or conversely), i.e. in the global spacetime of the universe. As a result, the speed of light is exclusively a function of spacetime characteristics, i.e. spacetime permittivity ε0, and spacetime permeability μ0. Thus, the speed of light is always 300,000 km/s, whatever the relative velocity of the two apparent media from where the light is emitted.

## Spacetime Cells, or "sCells"

It would seem that the global spacetime of the universe is divided into quanta called "Space-timeCells" or "sCells", which are nothing but neutral electrons. Therefore, sCells could have a closed volume equivalent to 511 KeV but, like neutrinos, they cannot be detected.

In particular, sCells explain with logic and good sense the constitution of quarks, show where is located the antimatter in the Universe, and solve several enigmas of modern physics. Moreover, they are the only solution to explain two basic forces, gravitational and electromagnetic forces.

So, we will use sCells repeatedly in this website, particularily to explain electromagnetism, Young slits, and the Heisenberg Relation.

## The Wave Model

The explanation of wave-particle duality leads to an important deduction: electrons are not moving around the nucleus as a punctual particle but as a stationary wave, which is a sort of "cloud of charge". Indeed, the charge of the electron is distributed into the sCells surrounding the nucleus. The formulas of quantum mechanics as Schrödinger Equation are not modified by this new approach. It is only an explanation of the phenomenon.