Part 5

# Introduction

This webpage is a summary of Parts 1 and 3 of the Spacetime Model. The knowledge of these subjects is necessary to understand the concepts developped in this website.

• Mass and Gravitation
The next page, "Forces", covers the unification of forces. So, before reading this page, it is necessary to know what gravitation is (see below).
• Spacetime Cells
Part 3 shows that spacetime would be parcelled in cells, called "Spacetime Cells", or "sCells". sCells are the basis of an alternative to the Big-Bang explained in this website.
• Wave Model
The Wave Model developed in Part 3 is summarized below. This model is an introduction to the explanation of the strong nuclear force.
• Strong Nuclear Force
To understand the unification of forces, it is necessary to know the origin of the strong nuclear force (see the end of this page).

So, this introduction page shortly presents the main subjects of Parts 1 and 3 required to understand forces and universe.

Internet users who have already read Parts 1 and 3 of the Spacetime Model can bypass this page and move to the next section Forces.

## What is Mass?

The mass and gravitation enigmas lie in the concept of VOLUME.

All objects in the universe can be classified in five different types of volumes described in Part 1. The three main classes of volumes are:

• Closed volumes (volumes with mass), such as elementary particles. Their internal spacetime "pushes" the surrounding spacetime to make room. Thus, "closed volumes" produce a convex curvature of spacetime. Since spacetime has properties of elasticity (Einstein), the latter exerts a pressure on the surface of these volumes. As a result, a "mass effect" appears, i.e. an effect having all the characteristics of mass. The mass component [M] can be extracted from the pressure [M/LT2] by simple mathematical operations. This leads to a 4D expression of the mass: m = f(x,y,z,t).
• Open Volumes (massless volumes). It is just a vacuum, but sometimes found in various forms such as the volume of orbitals or the space between atoms. These volumes exist but they are "porous" regarding spacetime. More exactly, they are subject to variations of spacetime but they do not curve spacetime themselves. Therefore, open volumes are massless since no curvature means no mass (Einstein Field Equations).
• Apparent Volumes. These volumes, such as atoms, molecules, and more generally daily life objects, are combinations of closed and open volumes. The proportion varies from one object to another. This is why mass is not identical to (apparent) volumes.

Mechanism of

## Mass and Gravitation

Part 1 of the Spacetime Model (Mass and Gravity) demonstrates that mass and gravitation are nothing but the consequence of the pressure of spacetime on closed volumes ("closed volumes", not "apparent volumes"). As figures (a) and (b) show, we are faced with the same phenomenon.

Gravitation is not an attractive force between masses, but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes that tends to bring them closer to each other.

The result is identical to that of an attraction. For example, a pressure on one side of a sheet of paper is equivalent to an attraction on the other side. In both cases, the sheet is curved.

## Spacetime Cells, or "sCells"

It would seem that the global spacetime of the universe is divided into quanta called "Space-timeCells" or "sCells", which are nothing but neutral electrons. Therefore, sCells could have a closed volume equivalent to 511 KeV but, like neutrinos, they can't be detected.

In particular, sCells explain with logic and consistency the constitution of quarks, show where is located the antimatter in the Universe, and solve several enigmas of modern physics. Moreover, they are the only solution to explain two basic forces, gravitational and electromagnetic forces.

This website uses sCells repeatedly to explain the birth of the Universe.

## The Wave Model

The explanation of wave-particle duality (see Part 2) leads to an important deduction: electrons are not moving around the nucleus as a punctual particle but as a "stationary wave", which is a sort of "cloud of charge". Indeed, the charge of the electron is distributed into the sCells surrounding the nucleus. The same phenomenon exists in the nucleus and protons/neutrons.

## Nuclear Force

The Wave Model suggests that the (u u d) structure of the proton should be replaced by a (u u u + electron) scheme. This view is in perfect accordance with experimentations. Please see Part 3 for more information.

Figure B shows that the three quarks (u u d) are not linked by a hypothetical strong nuclear force whose origin is unknown. Nature made things much more simpler.

Despite the spin objections explained in Part 4, a d quark is a u quark enclosed by an electron in its wave form, in accordance with the Wave Model described above.

When the proton is created, the electron leaves the d quark. It then surrounds the three u quarks and keeps them locked up. The electron acts as a rubber band: the more one moves away from the centre, the stronger the force becomes. This phenomenon is called "Asymptotic Freedom".