Part 3

# Wave Model

This page explains the role of Spacetime Cells, or sCells, in atoms. We will further see other enigmas solved by sCells.

Contrary to a preconceived idea, in atoms, electrons are not punctual particles but waves. This is a consequence of the wave-particle duality (see part 1 of our website). In reality, the charge of electrons is distributed into sCells, making a kind of "cloud of charges" around the nucleus. We will see later that this new model, called "Wave Model", can also be applied to quarks and composite particles such as neutrons or mesons.

## Electrons in atoms

Since electrons are moving around the nucleus as stationary waves, their charge is distributed in several sCells. We have a "distribution of spacetime density". This is confirmed by several experiments such as the electron diffusion by a neutron (see the following pages). This view is also in accordance with Schrödinger or Dirac models.

Note: The spin is covered in Part 4.

## Schrödinger Model vs.Wave Model

Let's imagine, for example, that the electron wraps up the nucleus in its wave form distributed in 50 sCells (previous figure).

Instead of having a continuous moving electron around the nucleus with a charge of -1, we will have 50 sCells with a charge of -0.02 each. This is what we call the "Wave Model". The whole charge of the electron distributed inside some sCells (50 in this example).

• The Schrödinger Equation
In this example, the probability of finding the electron at a given position and at a given time is 0.02. Since, around the nucleus, we have 50 sCells, the total probability of finding the electron on its orbital is 0.02 x 50 = 1. The problem is that no one can explain this theory grounded on probabilities.
• sCells explanation
The measurement (*) does not relate to the electron as a particle, but to a negligible part of the wave, i.e. a part of its charge in sCells. The probability of finding the electron is always 1 (100%) in each sCell, but the charge measured is -0.02 instead of -1. Since we have 50 sCells, we obtain the same result, i.e. a whole probability of 1.

As we see, from a mathematical point of view, nothing is changed.

However, the explanation of this phenomenon is much more credible than that of a "probability cloud". In both cases, the whole probability is 1. Therefore, the Schrödinger Equation can continue to be used, but it would be more correct to replace "Probability density" with "Spacetime density".

Another important point is that Einstein was opposed to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. He never agreed with the "probability cloud" posed by Schrödinger (Nobel Prize 1933) and Max Born (Nobel Prize 1954). All things considered, the Spacetime Model is more close to Einstein's view than to that of his detractors. Indeed, the two explanations lead to identical mathematical results, but the Spacetime Model provides a consistent explanation of the "probability cloud".

(*) We mention "measurement" making the theory comprehensible, but it is obvious that a real measurement of the electron under the above conditions must be in accordance with the Heisenberg Uncertainly Relation.

## The vacuum enigma

No one can explain why 99,999% of matter is a vacuum. This enigma becomes very simple if we consider that atomic electrons follow the Wave Model.

For example, let's consider a "ball pool". Each ball is empty. Therefore, the amount of PVC in each ball is very small, so small that we can consider that 99% of the pit is a vacuum (air more exactly).

In atoms, the phenomenon is identical. If the electron is that particle moving around the nucleus (fig. A), no one can explain why 99.999% of the atom is a vacuum, and why we feel that 99.999% of a vacuum is "matter".

If the "electrons-waves" are distributed in sCells (fig. B), the amount of matter (0.001%) is the same but we have the perception that matter exists.

## Enigma of the photoelectric effect

In atoms, the electron is moving around the nucleus at a great distance from it. Taking into account the ratio of 0.001%, the probability that a photon has to meet the electron is practically zero, despite the number of atoms are in matter. This observation is highlighted with thin graphene sheets. Under these circumstances, why does the photoelectric (PE) yield reach 95%?

If the electron is distributed in sCells all around the nucleus (previous figure B), this enigma becomes clear. In all cases the photon meets sCells partially charged. In such a case, the PE yield may reach 100%, even in graphene.