Part 2

# What is Matter ?Clarification

As the discussion stands now, the reader may take the following stance:

"This does not mean anything... When I take a hammer, I see that this hammer is made of matter, and not of the so-called areas of high and low densities of spacetime..."

This chapter is probably the most difficult to understand of this website since it demonstrates that all the matter of the universe is made up of spacetime areas, and that we are living in a virtual world. This is far from being obvious.

## What we know

For the past 50 years, what we have known is particularly disconcerting:

#### 1 - The atom

It is very difficult to measure the diameter of an electron. However, the following approximations are generally accepted by the Physics Community.

In an hydrogen atom, the ratio between the nucleus (proton) and its diameter is about 1/40 000. To get a concrete idea, let's compare the hydrogen atom to a cathedral:

• If the diameter of the nucleus was 1 mm., that of a grain of rice,
• The diameter of the atom is 40 m., that of a cathedral
• Between the nucleus (the grain of rice) and the bound of atom (the top of the cathedral) we have a vacuum.

It means that the atom is made of 99,999% vacuum and 0,001% matter.

Another interesting comparison: If we eliminate all the vacuum of atoms (99.999%), the size of the human body would be reduced to that of a pinhead!

#### 2 - Waves

In accordance with De Broglie, matter and waves are identical. Thus, the human body, at least the 0.001% that remains after all the vacuum is removed, would be nothing but waves, i.e. a virtual entity.

#### 3 - Energy

As we know, E = mc2. So, this pinhead would be identical to pure energy. See Part 1, mass and gravity. Thus, the human body, at least the 0.001% that remains after all the vacuum is removed, would be nothing but Energy, i.e. a virtual entity.

## Deduction

To summarize, experimentations, Einstein E = mc2, and De Broglie Theory proves that matter is made of:

• A vacuum : 99.999%
• Waves or energy : 0.001%

Under these circumstances, can we continue to call "matter" something that is 99.999% vacuum and 0.001% waves or energy? It would be more reasonable to consider that what we call "matter" is nothing but a virtual concept, since a vacuum, waves, and energy do not exist in concrete terms.

If a vacuum and waves/energy are both virtual concepts, the immediate deduction is that we are living in a virtual world

#### Important

These conclusions are not a philosophical view of Physics, but the reality. In the wordwide, all physicists know that atoms and molecules are made of 99.999% vacuum and 0.001% waves or energy. No one can object this result proved by thousands experimentations since 1927 (Davisson and Germer experiments).

Therefore, the real problem is our brain that has difficulty to accept this deconcerting reality.

## Examples

To help understanding this strange phenomenon, let us consider the air. Are we able to built something with air? The immediate answer to this question is "No" since in air, we do not see anything. However, if we think carrefully, we remark that:

• Air has water vapour,
• If we extract this water vapour, we obtain water,
• Water may be transformed in ice,
• With ice, we can build igloos.

Can we even built something else with air, for example a piece of suggar? The immediate answer to this question is also "No". However, if we think carrefully, we remark that:

• Air contains carbon dioxide (CO2), from which we can extract carbon and oxygen,
• Air also contains hydrogen,
• With carbon C, oxygen O and hydrogen H we can build a lot of things since these three atoms are, by far, the basic elements of the universe,
• Thus, with air we can built suggar (C12H22O11).

These examples are provided to understand that, in our daily life, what we see and what we think are not necessarily the truth.

## The Spacetime ModelContribution

The current theory does not change our point of view about matter (atoms) which is made up of a vacuum (99.999%) and waves (0.001%). The Spacetime Model is just a little more precise regarding the nature of waves.

#### 1 - Current Theory

The 0,001% of the remaining "matter" is made of De Broglie waves. However, to date no one can explain how matter, i.e. protons, electrons..., can be transformed into waves.

#### 2 - Proposed Theory

Nothing is changed, but the proposed theory explains:

• How matter can be transformed in waves and conversely (wave-particle duality),
• Why matter and waves are made of spacetime (precedent webpages),
• How matter can be transformed in energy (see the Part 1).

Einstein demonstrated that gravity has its origin in spacetime. This website demonstrates that all objects of the universe are also made of spacetime. Therefore, the Spacetime Model simply extends the Einstein Concept of spacetime to the whole universe. In other words, in the universe,

## Physical Characteristics of Matter

It could be strange to consider that matter is made of spacetime. Let us examine the main physical characteristics of matter:

• Mass
As explained in the Part 1, the mass is produced by spacetime with m = f(x,y,z,t).
• Weight
Weight is a consequence of gravity which is defined by G = f(x,y,z,t).
• Volume
The volume, V = (x,y,z), is included in spacetime f(x,y,z,t).
• Colour
The colour is a reflection of the light on objects with a modification of the wavelength. These waves are defined as Waves = f(x,y,z,t).
• Temperature
As we know, temperature is an infra-red vibration of molecules which are expressed as Vibrations = f(x,y,z,t).

As we see, in all cases, matter is mathematically defined as Matter = f(x,y,z,t). In other words, it is possible to build all kinds of matter with only the four dimensions of the universe x, y, z and t.

These deductions confirm our previous conclusion: In the Universe, ALL is spacetime

.

## Forces in Daily Life

In our daily life, beside matter we also have forces which are virtual quantities built in combination of the four dimensions of the universe.

The dimensional quantity of a force is [ML/T2], i.e. (mass x length) / time2. Therefore, forces are defined in 4D: x, y, z and t. Forces generate all forms of communication experienced in human life such as:

• Intelligence
Chemical interactions in synaptic transmissions (Coulomb Force),
• Sound
Music, speech... (Vibrations of air → Forces),
• Pain
Electrical currents (Coulomb Force) in the sensory nerves,
• Joy
Hormones which are specific molecules issued from the Coulomb Force,
• Heat
Infra-red EM waves (Vibrations → Forces),
• Touch
Coulomb Forces between molecules,
• Human power
Electrical currents (→ Forces) in the motor nerves,

Of course, all these forces are invisible, as those of two magnets, but they exist and must be taken into consideration to understand life.

## Importance of Forces

Let us try to understand the importance of these forces in our life. If we remove all these virtual entities called "forces" from the human body, what would remain?

• Light
If the EM force would not exist, we would not have any more light. We would be blind.
• Sound
Acoustic waves are propagated in the air by forces. If these forces did not exist, we could not hear noises, music, or speech.
• Touch-sensitive
We know that nerves propagate electric potentials. If our hands were disconnected from our brain, we would not have any feelings (sensory nerves), or movements (motor nerves).
• Brain
The chemical interactions between neurotransmitters of our brain are Coulomb Forces. Thus, our brain would no longer function.
• Molecules
Molecules are associations of atoms thanks to the Coulomb Force. Thus, the human body, life, and all the objects that surround us would not exist since there would be no association of atoms in molecules.
• Atoms
Moreover the atoms themselves could not exist since it is still the Coulomb Force that maintains the electrons on their orbital.
• Nucleus
If we remove the Strong Nuclear Force from the nucleus, we will have independent nucleons.
• Nucleons
At last, nucleons are associations of quarks produced by the nuclear force.

Thus, if all of these forces did not exist, the universe would only be made of elementary particles such as quarks, electrons and positrons, i.e. of low and high densities of spacetime.

## Conclusions:(4D) Matter + (4D) Forces = (4D) Life

We have seen that matter is nothing but spacetime. This is a good result, but to build atoms, molecules... and life, we need something else: FORCES. Matter without forces is nothing but areas of spacetime. This is why it is very important to understand the role of forces in the life.

Finally, this website "What is Matter" has demonstrated that Nature is made of two virtual quantities:

• Matter
Matter is spacetime areas defined as Matter = f(x,y,z,t). Whatever the name given to these basic areas (electrons, positrons, waves...), Matter is defined in 4D and, therefore, is a virtual entity. However, as explained in our previous webpage "Forces", to build electrons, positrons, waves... we need few basic forces in spacetime.
• Forces
The three basic forces we know are also a virtual concept defined by F = f(x,y,z,t). These forces are necessary to build object such as quarks, atoms, molecules... and human body from pure flat spacetime.

Matter and Forces are two virtual concepts defined in 4D: x, y, z and t. Various combinations of these two virtual concepts make up atoms, molecules, and finally the universe and life.

How spacetime has been transformed in basic matter (areas of spacetime, waves) and generates forces? This subject is covered in Part 5: forces in the universe.

The two basic elements, Matter and Forces, whose various combinations create objects and life, can be summarized by: In the universe,

As a magician makes us believe that an object is on our right whereas it is on our left, nature makes us believe that all is matter whereas all is virtual objects and forces produced by spacetime.